Adams G.

G. Adams was possibly a conductor in charge of an Orangemen music band. A baton dedicated to G. Adams by the members of the Juvenile Orange Association is currently an exhibit in the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection (inventory number JSW 65). Founded in 1795 in Ireland by protestant Englishmen, the Orange Association is famous for its annual parades featuring marching bands. It has its lodges in Northern Ireland, across Great Britain and other English-speaking countries. The date and place of the band’s activity is not specified on the baton.

Arlt

Arlt was the conductor of the Feliks Nowowiejski Choir in Oignies, France. His commemorative baton is currently an exhibit in the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection (inventory number JSW 23). See Feliks Nowowiejski Choir in Oignies.

Band of Hope

Founded in Leeds in 1847, the Band of Hope (now Hope UK) is a Christian charity that promotes abstinence from alcohol and drugs among children and young people in the United Kingdom. Music played an important role in the work of the organisation which, among other activities, held contests for choirs and music groups (including adult groups). The music groups associated with the organisation were typically called Bands of Hope, which is the name inscribed on some of the batons featured on this website.

Bibliography: Hope UK’s home site is at http://www.hopeuk.org/about-us/history/ [date of access December 2017]

Bareham, R.

Richard Bareham (b.1874 in Pokesdown, Great Britain, d. after 1919) was an organist, conductor, and composer, graduate of the Royal College of Organists in London. In the years 1894-97, he was an organist at the Lynton parish church, and after 1897 he was actively involved with St. Peter’s Church in the nearby Tiverton (Devon). British musical press from the first half of the 20th century includes a number of reviews of his concerts in Tiverton (chiefly as conductor and musical director). Bareham’s commemorative baton is currently an exhibit in the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection (inventory number JSW 155). As per inscription, Bareham received it as a student of the Royal College of Organists from his friends in Lynton in June 1897, possibly on the occasion of the end of his stint in Lynton.

Bibliography: F.W. Thornsby, Dictionary of organs and organists, H. Logan & Company, Bournemouth 1912, pp. 222, 245; „The Musical Times”, vol. 48: 1907 no. 772 p. 403; vol. 50: 1909 no. 796 p. 400; vol. 57: 1916, no. 881 p. 343; vol. 60: 1919 no. 915 p. 241, no. 917 p. 375, no. 919 sp. 499 (JSTOR, date of access December 2017).

Barlow, Howard

Howard Barlow (b.1 May 1892 in Plain City, Ohio, d.  31 January 1972 in Bethel, Connecticut), was an American conductor, composer, and arranger. He graduated from Columbia University, and collaborated with a number of American ensembles and symphony orchestras, including the American National Orchestra in New York (1923-24), which he founded, as well as the Columbia Symphony Orchestra (1927-42),the  Baltimore Symphony Orchestra (1939-42), and – as guest conductor – the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, New York Philharmonic, and the Philadelphia Orchestra. An esteemed and award-winning conductor, he was famous for promoting American music. From 1942 on, he appeared as conductor on NBC’s radio (and then television) show “Voice of Firestone,” becoming a household name. Upon ending his stint with NBC, he became a lecturer at Western Connecticut State University. H. Barlow’s commemorative baton, which he received in 1958 on the centenary of Elkhart from festival music ensembles.

Bibliography: Das Atlantisbuch der Dirigenten: Eine Enzyklopädie, hrsg. S. Jaeger, Atlantis Busikbuch-Verlag, Zürich 1985, p. 67; H. Stoddard, Symphony conductors of the U.S.A., Thomas Y. Crowell Company, New York, cop. 1957, p. 301; E. Eriksson, Howard Barlow, w: www.allmusic.com [date of access December 2017]; Howard Barlow of the ‘Voice of Firestone’ Is Dead [bez aut.], “New York Times” 2 February 1972 p. 42.

Barron J.W.

J.W. Barron was a conductor active in Great Britain. His baton, dated 1921 and dedicated by the St. James Choral Society (town unknown) is currently an exhibit in the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection (inventory number JSW 87). He may have been the same person as J.W. Barron, appointed choirmaster at St. John’s Church in Upper Edmonton (London) in 1905.

Bibliography: Church and Organ Music Source, “The Musical Times”, vol. 46: 1905, no. 747, p. 317  [date of access: JSTOR December 2017].

Battle F.

F. Battle was a conductor active in Great Britain. Battle’s baton, reportedly presented to him for winning the second prize in the Eisteddfod festival of Welsh culture in 1906, is currently an exhibit in the J.S. Witkiewicz Colleciton (inventory number JSW 48).

Berg, C.

C. Berg (19th/20th century) was an obscure conductor who may have led a (German?) church choir in Grobiņa (then Russia, now Latvia). His commemorative baton dated 1900, bearing a dedication in German, is currently an exhibit in the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection (inventory number JSW 140).

Bernhardt, O.K.

O.K. Bernhardt was a conductor; his commemorative baton, dated 1879 and presented to Bernhardt by the members of the Spa Concert Room Orchestra in the English spa resort Harrogate, famous for its springs), is currently an exhibit in the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection (inventory number JSW 165). He may have been the same person as the (German?) conductor and violinist Otto Bernhardt, who conducted seasonal concerts in Harrogate and the surrounding cities (among others in Leeds) in the late 19th century.

Bibliography: „The Musical Times and Singing Class Circular”, Vol. 21: 1880 no. 446, p. 194; vol. 27: 1886 no. 526, pp. 723-724; vol. 29: 1888 no. 541, pp. 176-178; vol. 30: 1889 no. 551, p. 3.

Black, Frank

Frank Jeremiah Black (b. 28 November 1894 in Philadelphia, d. 29 January 1968 in Atlanta, USA) was an American orchestra conductor and composer of film, stage and radio music, and an arranger. He collaborated with a number of American theatres and popular musicians, including the Revelers. In 1928, he was appointed musical director of NBC, a post he occupied for the next 14 years. He also directed his own band, the Frank Black Orchestra, with whom he mostly performed light classical works and popular music . Frank Black’s baton, commemorating his 1937 radio broadcast cycle Carnation Contented Hour, is currently an exhibit in the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection (inventory number JSW 130). The baton bears a dedication  from the sponsor of the broadcast, the Carnation Company, as well as the name of the show and date.

Bibliography: S. Modi, Black, Frank J. (in:) Grove Music Online [date of access December 2017], https://secondhandsongs.com/artist/66940 [date of access December 2017];
http://www.digitaldeliftp.com/DigitalDeliToo/dd2jb-Cadillac-Choral-Symphony.html [date of access December 2017].

Blackburn, Albert

Albert Blackburn was an English conductor, who in 1885 conducted the Thornhill Glee Society. His baton is currently part of the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection (inventory number JSW 164). The baton was presented to the conductor by the female members (choristers?) of the ensemble.

Bower, Clark H.

Clark H. Bower was possibly the conductor the Ushers Glee Club choir (town unknown), from whom he received a baton in 1929, currently in the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection (inventory number JSW 103).

Bran, Anna R.

Anna R. Bran was a British conductor active at the Waterloo Methodist Church, from whom she received a commemorative baton in 1916 or 1918. The baton is currently part of the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection (inventory number  125).

Brereton, W.J.

W.J. Brereton conducted a choir at the Egremont Methodist Church in Great Britain in 1921. His baton, presented by the Egremont choir and congregation, is currently part of the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection (inventory number JSW 156).

Brooke, Lady

Lady Brooke (first name unknown) was a conductor and teacher (?) at the People’s Palace in 1890, at the time a London-based educational institution, currently part of the Queen Mary University of London. A baton presented to Lady Brooke by her Saturday class is currently part of the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection (inventory number JSW 162).

Brooke, Margaret

Margaret Brooke (nee Margaret Alice Lili de Windt, b. 9 October 1849 in Paris, d. 1 December 1936 in London) was an English aristocrat who married into the family of the so-called White Rajas of Sarawak, an Asian kingdom on the island of Borneo (in today’s Malesia). Margaret married Charles Anthony Johnson Brooke—the second White Raja of Sarawak, nephew and successor to James Brooke, the first English governor of the kingdom—and received the title of Ranee, i.e. Raja’s wife. She also went by Lady Brooke. According to her daughter-in-law, Sylvia, Margaret was the author of the first anthem of Sarawak, “Gone forth beyond the sea.” Having spent a number of years on Borneo, she separated from her husband and returned to Great Britain with her three sons.  It was there that, driven by her affinity for music and urged by the matrimonial needs of her sons, she established a musical ensemble called the Grey Friars Orchestra, comprised of young single women (one of them was Sylvia Brett, who eventually married Vyner Brooke and became Margaret’s daughter-in-law and the second and last Ranee of Sarawak). Margaret Brooke’s baton dated 1903 and dedicated “to the Ranee” by the Grey Friar Orchestra, is currently an exhibit in the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection, of which it is a true ornament. The baton is decorated with a golden fitting with an image of St. Cecilia holding a scroll of music scores including the antiphon to St. Cecily, faithfully represented using neumas and Latin lyrics.

Bibliography: P. Eade, Sylvia: queen of the headhunters, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London, 2007; S. Runciman, The White Rajas: A History of Sarawak from 1841 to 1946, Cambridge University Press, London, New York 1960; M. Brooke, My life on Sarawak, Oxford University Press, Oxford 1987; https://encyklopedia.pwn.pl/haslo/Brooke-James;3880980.html; manuscript of the score for the anthem of Sarawak for voice and piano can be accessed online at the Brooke Heritage Trust website: http://www.brooketrust.org

Brown, D.A.

Darius Alvin Brown was a judge, mayor of Kansas City (USA) in 1910-1911. A baton dedicated to mayor D.A. Brown by the Kansas City Musicians Association on 1 November 1910 is currently part of the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection (inventory no. JSW 61) and constitutes one of the more intriguing cases in which a baton has been presented to a politician, who may have been an amateur musician, too.

Bibliography: G.F. Green, A Condensed History of the Kansas City Area, Kansas City, Lowell Press, 1968, s. 111.

Clapp, Edward

Edward Clapp conducted the Germania Band ensemble in 1889, possibly in Pittsfield, Massachusetts (USA). His baton is currently part of the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection (inventory number JSW 133).

Clayton, J.W.

J.W. Clayton was a conductor of the United Methodist Free Church in Swinnow, probably a quarter of Leeds in Great Britain. His baton, presented by the choir in 1904, is currently part of the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection (inventory number JSW 166).

Conway, D.R.

D.R. Conway was a conductor active in Great Britain. A baton belonging to Conway, presented to him in January 1913 by the members of the men’s choir from the Welsh towns of Connah's Quay and Shotton, is currently an exhibit in the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection.

Copeland, F.

F. Copeland was a conductor of the English (American?) ensemble Vulcan Band in 1902. His baton is currently part of the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection (inventory number  152).

Cowen, Arthur

Arthur Cowen was a conductor active in the Welsh town of Aberystwyth. His baton, presented to the conductor by the Aberystwyth Corporation in 1912, is currently part of the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection (inventory number JSW 126). The owner of the baton may have in fact been Arthur Cowen, the conductor of the Twickenham Philharmonic Society in 1910-1913.

Bibliography: The Musical Times, Vol. 51, No. 807 (May 1, 1910), p. 311, JSTOR: https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/906323; Vol. 52, No. 815 (Jan. 1, 1911), p. 37: JSTOR http://www.jstor.org/stable/906585; Vol. 54, No. 848 (Oct. 1, 1913), p. 662: http://www.jstor.org/stable/907428

Crooks J.F.

J.F. Crooks was possibly a conductor of a Baptist church choir. His baton is currently an exhibit in the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection (inventory number JSW 67), and bears a dedication from his Baptist friends from the town of Jarrow (Great Britain), dated 5 May 1882.

Davenport, W.W.

W.W. Davenport was a conductor at the HMS Endymion, who conducted the combined orchestras of the British Navy in the public gardens [in Weymouth?] on 23 August 1895. To commemorate the event, the authorities of Weymouth and Melcombe Regis presented Davenport with a baton, which is currently part of the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection (inventory number JSW 34).

Dobson W.H.

W.H. Dobson was the conductor of the Brunswick House Musical Society, possibly based in Great Britain (town unknown). His baton, bearing a dedication from the Society dated 1896, is currently part of the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection (inventory number JSW 99).

Done W.A.

W.A. Done was an obscure conductor, likely based in Great Britain, whose fancifully decorated baton dated 4 November 1919 is currently part of the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection (inventory number JSW 97).

Evans B.

B. Evans was a conductor active in Wales in the 19th century. A baton dated 1893, with a dedication in Welsh to B. Evans from the members of the (Gobeithlu?) band, affiliated by the Caersalem Newydd chapel, erected in the 19th century near Swansea, Wales. In the 19th and 20th century, the chapel was a venue of concerts reviewed in musical press.

Bibliography: Music in the Provinces Source, “The Musical Times”, vol. 62: 1921, no. 938; Music in Wales, “The Musical Times”, vol. 66: 1925, no. 987 [JSTOR, date of access December 2017].

Evans Marie

Marie Evans was a relatively unknown conductor, possibly active in Great Britain. Her baton, dated 20 January 1914 and dedicated from the members of her choir, is currently an exhibit in the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection (inventory number JSW 75).

Eyre, E.W.

E.W. Eyre was a 19th-century English conductor of whom very little is known. The J.S. Witkiewicz collection includes a commemorative carved bone-and-sandalwood baton (inventory number JSW 123) with a dedication suggesting it was a private gift ‒ the baton was ‘presented to Mr. E.W. Eyre as a mark of esteem by Miss Harriett Ware’ in November 1896. Interestingly, there was a famous American composer of the same name, Harriet Ware (married name Krumbhaar, 1877‒1962), who studied music in a number of countries including in Europe. No sufficient evidence exists to link the two.

C. Ammer, Unsung: A history of Women in American Music (Portland: Amadeus Press, 2016)

Farquhar James H.

James H. Farquhar was an obscure conductor (?) whose baton, dated 1890 and earing a dedication from the children members of the Band of Hope choir at the Heatherlie church in Selkirk, Scotland, is currently an exhibit in the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection (inventory number JSW 84). Band of Hope ensembles were affiliated with a Christian e charity of the same name, which propagated temperance among working class children and youth in Great Britain.

Feliks Nowowiejski Choir in Oignies

Feliks Nowowiejski Choir in Oignies (also known as the Singers’ Circle “Nowowiejski Choir” etc.) was a choir established in 1924 in a Polish parish in northern France (the parish itself was founded in 1922). Parishioners were Polish emigrants, mostly miners who moved to France from Westphalia in the aftermath of World War I. The choir’s possible repertoire mostly included church songs performed during services. Jan Stanisław Witkiewicz’s collection includes a baton (no. JSW 23) presented to the Nowowiejski Choir’s director, Mr. Arlt, by the members of the choir in Oignies in 1929.

Bibliography: R. Dzwonkowski, Przemiany polskiej parafii w Północnej Francji (1922-1972): studium historyczno-socjologiczne parafii w Oignies [in:] “Studia polonijne”, vol. 1, Lublin 1976, online access: http://docplayer.pl/60262911-Przemiany-polskiej-parafii-w-polnocnej-francji-studium-historyczno-socjologiczne-parafii-w-oignies.html; “Narodowiec” 1945 no. 120, online access:
https://argonnaute.parisnanterre.fr/medias/customer_3/periodique/immi_pol_lotmz1_pdf/BDIC_GFP_2929_1945_120.pdf

Firchow A.

A. Firchow was a conductor active in the 19th century in Swinemünde, Prussia (now Świnoujście, Poland). He is possibly the same person as Count A. Firchow, musical director at the Bellevue Theatre in Stettin (now Szczecin, Poland) in 1870. K. Słowiński’s collection features a baton with a documented history, dedicated to conductor A. Firchow by the members of the German Patriotic Women’s Association (a charity for the support of war veterans) dated 1892. For a detailed history of the exhibit, see catalogue card KS 3.

Bibliography: “Deutscher Bühnen-Almanach”, Jg. 35: 1871, p. 284.

Foster, John

John Foster was the conductor of the Weymouth Choral Society between 1934 and 1938 (possibly longer?), with whom he performed, among others, at the Alexandra Gardens Theatre in Weymouth. Founded in 1862, the Weymouth Choral Society has been active to this day. John Foster’s baton, bearing the name of the society is currently part of the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection (inventory number JSW 167).

Bibliography: The Musical Times, Vol. 78, No. 1131 (May, 1937), p. 462, JSTOR:
http://www.jstor.org/stable/921925; Weymouth CHoral Society, http://www.weymouthchoralsociety.org.uk

Gamble, F.

F. Gamble was a conductor and teacher, likely active in Great Britain. His baton, dated 1927 and bearing a dedication from his students, is currently part of the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection (inventory number JSW 18).

Garfit M.E.

M.E. Garfit was the conductor of the Partney Competition Choir (in Partney, England?). His commemorative baton dated 1903 is currently an exhibit in the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection którego pamiątkowa batuta z 1903 r. is currently an exhibit in the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection (inventory number JSW 69).

Gauthier, J.R.

J.R. Gauthier was a French (?) conductor and army captain. His baton, dated 1915 and bearing a dedication from the soldiers of the 41st regiment, is currently part of the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection (inventory number JSW 9).

Gerzabeck

Gerzabeck (first name unknown) was a conductor of (Gesang-Verein) Liedertafel in the German town of Heidenab. His commemorative baton, bearing a dedication on the occasion of the 5th anniversary of the Liedertafel society, is currently part of the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection (inventory number JSW 15).

Goadby I.F.

I.F. Goadby was a conductor of a choir in Cardiff, Wales, in the late 19th century. His baton, dated 1891 and bearing a dedication from the choir, is currently part of the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection (inventory number JSW 60).

Górzyński, Zdzisław

Górzyński Zdzisław (b. 29 September 1895 in Krakowie, d. 22 November 1977 in Warsaw) was a Polish opera, symphony, and theatre conductor. A versatile conductor, he performed both light music and operatic and symphonic works. He graduated from the Conservatory of the Music Society in Cracow, and continued his education in Vienna under Franz Schalk. Following his return to Poland, Górzyński was active as conductor and animator of musical life in Cracow, Lwów (now Lviv, Ukraine), Warsaw, Łódź, and Katowice, conducting opera, operetta, and theatre ensembles, as well as revue theatre performances. In 1926, he successfully conducted S. Moniuszko’s Halka at the invitation of the Viennese Volksoper. In 1931, he settled in Warsaw, working as an operetta and music hall conductor, among others at the Polski Theatre, while also acting as the permanent conductor of the Polish Radio Chamber Orchestra from 1934 until the outbreak of World War II. He spent World War II in hiding, resuming his musical activity in 1945 by reviving the Łódź Philharmonic. He then directed the Poznań and Warsaw operas. From 1961 until his retirement in 1971, he was affiliated with Teatr Wielki in Warsaw. He also toured extensively abroad. His students included Jan Krenz and Andrzej Tarski. Among Górzyński’s keepsakes are two original baton cases made of bamboo, which are currently part of the collection of his grandson, Krzysztof Słowiński.

Bibliography: L.T. Błaszczyk, Dyrygenci polscy i obcy in Polsce działający in XIX i XX wieku, PWM, Kraków 1964; Encyklopedia muzyki, ed. A. Chodkowski, Warszawa 2001; M. Kosińska, [Zdzisław Górzyński], Polskie Centrum Informacji Muzycznej, Związek Kompozytorów Polskich, June 2008: https://culture.pl/pl/tworca/zdzislaw-gorzynski [access December 2017].

Gray, Alex

Alex Gray was the conductor of the Banknock Colliery Brass Band at the Banknock coal mine in Scotland, founded in 19212 by the miners from the village of Dennyloanhead near Banknock. The orchestra was active at least through 1931 (by then under another conductor). Gray’s commemorative baton dated 1912, which he received from the members of his brass band, is currently an exhibit in the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection (inventory number JSW 104).

Bibliography: G. Holman, Brass Bands of the British Isles: a historical directory, [p.l.] 2018 [digital document, date of access May 2018]

Greenwood E.

E. Greenwood conducted a Band of Hope choir in Laygate (possibly a quarter of the town of South Shields) in Great Britain, from whom he received a baton in April 1909. The baton is currently part of the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection (inventory number JSW 107). Band of Hope ensembles were affiliated with a Christian e charity of the same name, which propagated temperance among working class children and youth in Great Britain.

Griebe, Wilhelm

Wilhelm Griebe was the conductor of the “Oberspree” choral society in 1925. His baton with a dedication from the choir is currently part of the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection (inventory number JSW 80).

Hagemann

Hagemann (first name unknown), was the conductor of the Liedertafel ensemble in Warburg in 1921. His commemorative baton with a dedication from the ensemble is currently part of the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection (inventory number JSW 136).

Hambleton G. A.

G.A. Hambleton was a conductor of an unknown (Presbyterian-Methodist?) choir in Great Britain. His commemorative baton, bearing a dedication from the choir, is currently part of the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection (inventory number JSW 101).

Hancock, Charles

Charles Hancock (b. 4 January 1852 in Islington, d. 6 February 1927) was a conductor, organist, composer, graduate of the Royal College of Organists and Oxford University. In 1875, he was appointed the conductor of the New Musical Society orchestra in Leicester. His baton is currently part of the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection (inventory number JSW 27). The baton bears a commemorative inscription on the occasion of a performance of G.F. Haendel’s oratorio “Israel in Egypt” on 4 and 23 of March 1897, perhaps in Leicester, where records exist of a 5 March 1897 performance of the said oratorio by the New Musical Society conducted by Hancock.

Bibliography: F.W. Thornsby, Dictionary of organs and organists, H. Logan & Company, Bournemouth 1912, s. 283; „The Musical Times and Singing Class Circular”, vol. 38: 1897 nr 650 s. 268, JSTOR: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3367772 (12.2017).

Harland, Harry

Harry Harland was an English conductor. From 1912 till 1951, he conducted The Prudhoe Gleemen, a men’s choir established in 1903 at a Methodist church in Wylam, which later moved to Prudhoe and has remained active to this day. Together with the choir, Harland enjoyed considerable success, winning the second prize in the men’s choir category at the fourth musical tournament North of England in Newcastle (May-June 1922). The J.S. Witkiewicz Collection features Harland’s commemorative baton, which he received in 1914 from his choir (the baton bears the former name of the ensemble, the Prudhoe Wesleyan Church Choir). Harland used the baton to conduct the choir (by then renamed The Prudhoe Gleemen) on 19 August 1924 at the Alnwick Castle, a residence of the Duke of Northumberland, during a visit from Queen Mary (1867-1953), wife of king George V. The programme of the concert signed by the queen, and accompanied by a letter written for the occasion, have been preserved and constitute part of the exhibit.

Bibliography: Prudhoe Gleemen (strona zespołu), http://www.prudhoegleemen.org.uk/history.htm [date of access 12.2018]; Extra Supplement: The Competition Festival Record July 1, 1922, w: “The Musical Times”, Vol. 63 no. 953 (1.07.1922), s. 1-2.

Higham S.

S. Higham was the conductor of a church choir in Great Britain (name of church and choir disguised under the acronym BHBC). His commemorative baton, dated 15 July 1897 and bearing a dedication from the ensemble, is currently part of the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection (inventory number JSW 109).

Hormann, Carl

Carl Hormann was a choirmaster active in Austria in the early 20th century. His silver baton dated 1908 is currently part of the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection (inventory number JSW 122). The baton was presented by the members of a singers’ association in the Austrian town of Laa an der Thaya in recognition of the conductor’s merit to the ensemble.

Horowitz, Richard

Richard Samuel Horowitz (b.3 February 1924 in New York, d.  2 November 2015 in Manhasset, New York), was a musician, percussionist of the Metropolitan Opera Orchestra, and an eminent baton maker. His studio was located in Queens, New York. His batons were marked with a handwritten signature “R. Horowitz.” Known for his ability to customize batons to fit the individual needs of a given conductor, such as their build, Horowitz designed batons for such conductors as Leonard Bernstein, James Levine, Karl Böhm, Sarah Caldwell, Colin Davis, Christoph von Dohnanyi, Erich Leinsdorf, Thomas Schippers, José Serebrier, or Kazimierz Kord. Several batons from Richard Horowitz’s studio can be found in the collection of Janusz Marynowski, director of the Sinfonia Varsovia orchestra.

Bibliography: M. Fox, Richard Horowitz, Accidental Craftsman of Conductors’ Batons, Is Dead at 91, "New York Times" 13 November 2015, date of access: https://www.nytimes.com/2015/11/12/arts/music/richard-horowitz-renowned-timpanist-and-craftsman-of-conductors-batons-dies-at-91.html; Batuta - przedłużenie ręki dyrygenta, [author unknown], Onet, date of access: https://wiadomosci.onet.pl/batuta-przedluzenie-reki-dyrygenta/tzxw3

Jackson, W.F.W.

W.F.W. Jackson was an organist with a bachelor’s degree in music from Oxford University. His commemorative baton is currently an exhibit  in the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection (inventory number JSW 83). He was possibly the same person as W.F.W. Jackson, an active organist and pianist, an Oxford graduate (he received his degree no later than in 1883), and a composer of such works as “The Exile's Farewell: a Reverie for Voice and Violin” (London 1890) and “Three English Part Songs. I. Britannia. H. In the Springtime. III. A Pastoral” (Strathearn 1897). As per inscription on the dedication plate, the baton was presented to Jackson on 8 November 1894 at St. Paul’s Church (city unknown) as a token of respect for his musical aptitude.

Bibliography: „The Musical Times and Singing Class Circular”, vol. 24:1883 no. 481, pp. 160-162; vol. 38: 1897 no. 651, p. 327; E. Beveridge, A Bibliography of Works Relating to Dunfermline and the West of Fife, William Clark & Son, Dunfermline 1901 [date of access: December 2017]; WorldCat www.worldcat.org [date of access December 2017].

Januszewski, Antoni

Antoni Januszewski (31 May 1863, Opinogóra near Ciechanów – 22 July 1930, Płock) was a pedagogue, symphony orchestra and brass band conductor. He studied at the Musical Institute in Warsaw, working with Henryk Koman (piano), Jan Śliwiński (organ), and Michał Sobolewski (oboe). Januszewski settled in Płock, where he was active as a pedagogue and conductor of school choirs, and military and civil bands. A long-time conductor of choirs and the symphony orchestra of the Płock Music Society, he also led the orchestra of the 15th Pereiaslav Dragoon Regiment, which in 1907 presented him with the baton currently held by the Theatre Museum in Warsaw. 

Bibliography: L.T. Błaszczyk, Dyrygenci polscy i obcy w Polsce działający w XIX i XX wieku, Kraków 1964.

Jones, J.

J. Jones was a conductor or a meritorious person affiliated with the Methodist Church (Wesleyan Chapel) in Northwood, Great Britain, in 1905. His commemorative baton, presented by the members of the Outing Club, is currently part of the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection (inventory number JSW 159).

Karn F.S.

Frederic James Karn (b. ?, d. 2 December 1940 in Cranleigh, Surrey) was a conductor, organist and composer, author of numerous musical publication on harmonics, composition, etc. A graduate of Cambridge University, he received his bachelor’s degree in 1885, followed by a Ph.D. in music at the University of Toronto. He also served as the director of the London College of Music. Karn’s uniquely decorated commemorative baton, dated 28 May 1908 and bearing a dedication from the committee and choir of the London College of Music, is currently part of the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection (inventory number JSW 28).

Bibliography: Alumni Cantabrigienses: a biographical list of all known students, graduates and holders of office at the University of Cambridge, from the earliest times to 1900,  vol. 2: From 1752 to 1900, ed. By J. Venn, J.A. Venn, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, cop. 2011

Kirkland, J.P.

J.P. Kirkland, was a conductor of the St. Margaret choir in the Scottish town of Fairlie (most likely at St. Margaret’s Church in Fairlie) in 1934. His commemorative baton, bearing a dedication from the ensemble, is currently part of the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection (inventory number JSW 19).

Koch, Carl

Carl Koch conducted the Wiesbaden synagogue choir in the 1880s, at least from 1880 through 1885. His commemorative baton, bearing a dedication from the choir, is currently part of the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection (inventory number JSW 150).

Bibliography: Allemania Judaica: Arbeitsgemeinschaft für die Erforschung der Geschichte der Juden im süddeutschen und angrenzenden Raum, http://www.alemannia-judaica.de/wiesbaden_synagoge.htm [access 12.2017].

Kohr (?), W.H.

W.H. Kohr (?) was an obscure English or American conductor, whose name was included in the dedication of a baton from J.S. Witkiewicz’s collection (inventory number JSW 98).

Lemoine I.

I. Lemoine was the conductor of a musical ensemble based in St. Géry-Boussu (Belgium?) in 1906. His commemorative baton with dedication is currently part of the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection (inventory number JSW 16).

Lisle, John

John Lisle was the conductor of the Methodist Church choir in Cullercoats (Great Britain). His commemorative baton dated 1887 and bearing a dedication from the choir and friends is currently part of the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection (JSW 163). The conductor was most likely a Cullercoats local; the surname Lisle (with reference to Lisle’s choir) occurs in the town’s chronicle as late as the 1930s.

Bibliography: L.G. Reed, Cullercoats Village 1292-1950, [s.l.], cop. 2014, online access: https://books.google.pl [12.2017].

Mankielewicz, Michał

Michał Mankielewicz (b. 8 September 1855 in Dąbrowa, Poland, d. 16 February 1911 in Warsaw) was a well-known Warsaw jeweller. In 1880 he opened a workshop in Warsaw at ul. Senatorska 22 and a shop in the building of the Grand Theatre, which remained in operation until at least 1942 (managed by Mankielewicz’s heirs). Mankielewicz produced and sold high-quality jewellery (including diamonds) and all manner of silver items. He was well-known in Warsaw for his love of theatre and for being a generous patron of artists. According to the memoirs of the actors Edmund Rygier and Jerzy Leszczyński, Mankielewicz gave young Paderewski a Bechstein piano when the young pianist was a teacher in Warsaw and had no funds to buy his own instrument. Mankielewicz was interned in the Powązki cemetery, Warsaw, with the Grand Theatre’s brass band playing at his funeral. The Theatre Museum in Warsaw has a baton that was probably crafted in Mankielewicz’s workshop and belonged to the conductor Cesare Trombini.

R. Bobrow, Srebra warszawskie 1851-1939, part 1, Srebra ze zbiorów Muzeum Narodowego w Warszawie, [exhibition catalogue] (Warszawa: Muzeum Narodowe, 1997); J. Leszczyński, Z pamiętnika aktora (Warszawa: Czytelnik, 1958) 11, 216; Kurier Warszawski, 22 May 1911; K. Wodarska-Ogidel, ‘Cesare Trombini i jego batuta’, in Teatr. Refleksy i refleksje. Zbiory Muzeum teatralnego w Warszawie, ed. by A. Kruczyński (Warszawa: Teatr Wielki – Opera Narodowa, 2017)

Marshman W.F.

W.F. Marshman was a conductor active in Great Britain, whose baton – presented t ohim by the members of his band in January 1905 – is currently an exhibit in the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection (inventory number JSW 81). He may have been the same person as W.F. Marshman, the conductor of the Manfield Choir, a mixed choir from Northampton, who conducted the choir at festivals in Nottingham (25 October 1913, no award), and at London’s Crystal Palace (22 November 1913, third place). In May 1921, the choir won the first and the second prize at a festival in Glasgow in the women’s choir and mixed choir category, having enrolled in the competition as the sole English choir. The press review of the festival mentions that only 3-4 conductors (total number unknown) used batons to conduct their choirs.

Bibliography: „The Musical Times”, vol. 54: 1913 no. 850 dated 1 December 1913: Extra Supplement: The Competition Festival Record; vol. 62: 1921, no. 940 Dated 1 June 1921: Extra Supplement… do. [date of access: JSTOR, December 2017]; D. Peel, The early days of the Northamptonshire musical competitions, “Northamptonshire Past and Present” vol. 2: 1957 no. 4,
http://www.northamptonshirerecordsociety.org.uk/eNpp/NppNo10_b.pdf [date of access December 2017].

Marx, Wilhelm

Wilhelm Marx was the conductor of Poppelsdorfer Quartett Verein in Poppelsdorf (currently a quarter of Bonn, Germany). His commemorative baton with a dedication dated 1867 is currently part of the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection (inventory number JSW 1). Marx’s baton is probably the earliest preserved in the collection, as well as the oldest baton featured on this website.

Michałowski, Aleksander

Aleksander Michałowski (17 May 1851, Kamieniec Podolski -  17 October 1938, Warsaw) was a pianist, chamber musician, composer, and pedagogue. He studied with a number of outstanding 19th-century musicians, including Ignaz Moscheles and Karl Heinrich Reinecke (both in Leipzig), and Carl Tausig (Berlin). His pianistic debut came in 1868 (or 1869) with Fryderyk Chopin’s Concerto in E minor, which he performed at Leipzig’s Gewandhaus. An illustrious performer of Chopin’s oeuvre, Michałowski often consulted his interpretations of Chopin’s pieces with Chopin’s student Karol Mikuli. He knew Clara Wieck, with whom he performed Robert Schuman’s compositions. In the years 1874-1918, he was affiliated with the Musical Institute in Warsaw, where he was appointed piano professor in 1891. Małachowski educated several generations of brilliant pianists and musicians (among others Wanda Landowska and Władysław Szpilman), becoming the founding father of the 19th- and 20th-century Polish piano school. He made a number of recordings, among others for the Syrena Electro label. Among the exhibits in his collection was Stanisław Moniuszko’s baton, currently owned by the Theatre Museum in Warsaw.

Bibliography: A. Chodkowski (ed.), Encyklopedia muzyki, 2 revised edition, Warszawa 2001; M. Kosińska, Aleksander Michałowski, in: www.culture.pl (Polskie Centrum Informacji Muzycznej, Związek Kompozytorów Polskich, 2007); Aleksander Michałowski, in: Historyczne interpretacje utworów Fryderyka Chopina, www.bn.org.pl/chopin/.

Mikitiuczek, Mikołaj

Mikołaj Mikitiuczek (ca. 1882, Węgrów – 28 July [August?] 1949, buried at the Roman Catholic cemetery in Siedlce) was a musician and local conductor. In the interwar period he conducted a fire fighter orchestra. Wanted by the Gestapo throughout World War II, his baton – a gift presented to Mikitiuczek by his daughter – is currently stored at the Theatre Museum in Warsaw.

Bibliography: Testimony by Katarzyna Wodarska-Ogidel (deposited at the Theatre Museum) based on information from M. Mikitiuczek’s daughter; dates as per Mikitiuczek’s tombstone in Siedlce: www.polski-cmentarz.pl/siedlce/grobonet/start.php?id=detale&idg=2023332&inni=0&cinki=1.

Moniuszko, Stanisław

Stanisław Moniuszko (b. 5 May 1819 in Ubiel near Minsk, d. 4 June 1872 in Warsaw) was an eminent Polish composer, conductor of opera ensembles, symphony orchestras and choirs, and a pedagogue. Today, he is mostly remembered as an opera composer, although conducting was an equally important component of his artistic life. He gained extensive conducting knowledge and practice while studying in Berlin with K.F. Rungenhagen, the director of Berlin’s Singakademie. Upon his return to Vilnius, Moniuszko was active as an organist and choir conductor at St. John’s Church, where he performed a rich symphonic repertoire. He applied, to no avail, for the post of the conductor of the Orchestra of the Imperial Theatres in Saint Petersburg. In 1848, he personally conducted the premiere of his opera, Halka (2-act version). In 1854, together with Achilles Bonoldi, he established the St. Cecilia Society, conducting its concerts. In 1858, he was appointed the first conductor of the Polish Opera at the Wielki Theatre in Warsaw, a post he occupied for almost 15 years, staging all of his operas among other works. A baton which, according to the family tradition (account unconfirmed), belonged to Stanisław Moniuszko, and was passed on to Aleksander Michałowski, is currently part of the collection Theatre Museum at Teatr Wielki – Polish National Opera in Warsaw (inventory number MT/IV/114).

Bibliography: L.T. Błaszczyk, Dyrygenci polscy i obcy in Polsce działający in XIX i XX wieku, PWM, Kraków 1964.

Moodie, James

James Moodie was a conductor and composer active in Dunfermline starting in 1888. James Moodie (or his namesake?) is also mentioned in a Polish context. As the director of the Carnegie Dunfermline Trust, he endorsed the musical education of an outstanding Polish bass, Marian Nowakowski, who was stationed near Dunfermline in 1940 as a soldier of the Polish Army. Moodie also conducted concerts featuring the Polish Army Choir, of which Nowakowski was a member. Moodie’s commemorative baton bearing a dedication from the mixed choirs in Dunfermline, dated 4 April 1888, is currently part of the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection (inventory number JSW 111).

Bibliography: “The Musical Times” vol. 75: 1934 no.1092, p. 185, JSTOR: http://www.jstor.org/stable/919684 [access: December 2017], vol. 83:1942 no.1192 p. 190, JSTOR: http://www.jstor.org/stable/921027 [access December 2017]; Marian Nowakowski, „The Herald” 25 April 2000, online access:
http://www.heraldscotland.com/news/12192427.Marian_Nowakowski/ [December 2017]; The Bass,
http://www.maestro.net.pl/document/Komorowska/Nowakowski.pdf [access December 2017].

Müller

Müller (first name unknown) was a conductor and staff trumpeter (Stabstrompeter) at an unidentified German military brass band in 1900. Müller’s baton, bearing a dedication from the band, is currently part of the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection (inventory number JSW 138).

Murphy H.

H. Murphy was a conductor of the Evangelical youth choir at the Duke Street Church in 1921. His commemorative baton with a dedication from the band is currently part of the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection (inventory number JSW 86).

NIcholas, A.

A. Nicholas was a conductor active in Birmingham in the late 19th century. A commemorative baton dedicated to Nicholas by the members of his vocal class at Burlington Hall is currently part of the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection (JSW 160). According to a press review of A. Nicholas’s 1898 concert, Burlington Hall was a men’s school in Aston, a quarter in Birmingham, England.
Bibliography: „The Musical Times and Singing Class Circular”, vol. 39: 1898 no.668, s. 676, JSTOR:
http://www.jstor.org/stable/3368275 [access: 12.2017].

Paderewski, Ignacy Jan

Ignacy Jan Paderewski (b. 6 November 1860 in Kuryłówka, Podolya, d.  29 June 1941 in New York) was a Polish pianist, composer, pedagogue, and politician. One of the most brilliant Polish musicians, he enjoyed global fame and exerted considerable political influence. His outstanding career as pianist is widely known, and his role as a politician, in particular canvassing for the regaining of Polish independence in 1918, is indisputable. Paderewski almost certainly never performed as a conductor, but he did receive two batons nonetheless, which he preserved in his collections (currently owned by the National Museum in Warsaw). One of them was presented to him at a recital in December 1901 in Poznań (17 years before his famous speech to the citizens of Poznań, which instigated the Wielkopolskie Uprising). It is splendidly decorated, on one end with a lyre and a laurel wreath, on the other with ornamental element resembling a crown; also included in the fitting is a dedication from the artists of the Polski Theatre in Poznań. The second baton, equally fanciful, was originally presented to conductor Jan Quattrini on 18 November 1888 by the grateful students of the University of Warsaw, and was subsequently transferred to Paderewski by Quattrini’s descendent on 27 November 1935. These batons embody the second role of such objects, i.e. that of precious gifts presented to conductor (or, by extension, musicians) as a sort of musical jewellery signifying musical ability and power. On the one hand, the baton presented to Paderewski in 1901 in Poznań was a gift which befitted a musician, while on the other it signified a symbolical recognition of his political leadership – the context of power seems more than reasonable in the case of this famous pianist, patriot and politician.

Bibliography: M. Perkowska-Waszek, Paderewski Ignacy Jan, in: Encyklopedia muzyczna PWM, część biograficzna, ed. E. Dziębowska, t. n-pa, PWM, Kraków 2002; Paderewski [exhibition catalogue], Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie, Warszawa 2018.

Palmer, H.R.

H.R. Palmer was a conductor of a choir in the eastern part of Brooklyn, New York, in 1885. Palmer’s commemorative baton, presented to him by the members of his choir,  is currently part of the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection (inventory number JSW 132).

Parker, James

James Parker conducted the Jamestown & Vale of Leven Silver Band, a brass band active from 1892 to 1931 in the Scottish town of Jamestown in the Vale of Leven region. Parker’s commemorative baton, dated 1928 and bearing a dedication from the members of his band, is currently part of the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection (inventory number JSW 142). The form of the baton possibly refers to the name of Silver Band, frequently used by British wind instruments – the wooden body of the baton is nearly completely fitted with silver.

Bibliography: G. Holman, Brass bands of the British Isles: a historical directory, [p. l.], 2018 [electronic document, access 05.2018].

Pemberton J.

J. Pemberton was a conductor active in Great Britain in the early 20th century. His commemorative baton, bearing a dedication from the members of the Diamond Jubilee Band, and presented to him in 1901 (or later) is currently an exhibit in the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection (inventory number JSW 95). He was possibly the same person as J. Pemberton, who conducted such brass bands as the Upper Norwood Temperance Band (in 1901), the Catford Diamond Jubilee Brass Band (in 1901-1902), or the Bromley Borough Band (in 1903).

Bibliography: G. Holman, Brass bands of the British Isles: a historical directory, [p.l.] 2018 [digital document, date of access May 2018]

Piotrowski, Michał

Michał Piotrowski (1875 – 19 March 1944, Warsaw) was a choir conductor, pedagogue, and composer. Educated at the Musical Institute in Warsaw, he studied piano performance with Antoni Sygietyński and composition with Zygmunt Noskowski. After working in Łomża, he moved to Warsaw, where he conducted several amateur choirs, including the mixed choir of the Warsaw Music Society. He also taught singing in secondary schools. Piotrowski’s commemorative baton, presented to him by the students of the Merchants School in Warsaw in 1914, is currently exhibited by the Theatre Museum in Warsaw.

Bibliography: L.T. Błaszczyk, Dyrygenci polscy i obcy w Polsce działający w XIX i XX wieku, Kraków 1964.

Quattrini, Jan

Jan Quattrini (13 May 1822, Brescia – 10 April 1893, Warsaw) was an opera and symphony orchestra conductor, flutist, pedagogue, and opera director. Educated at the Royal Conservatory of Music in Milan, he was appointed conductor of the Mantua Opera at the age of 17. First active in Italy, he moved to Berlin in 1840 to conduct the Italian Opera in Berlin. In 1843 he was appointed conductor of the Evasia Rocca opera in Warsaw, which performed at Teatr Wielki, where Quattrini was soon hired as the choir conductor. In 1844, he succeeded Henryk Karol Litolff as the principal conductor of the Teatr Wielki opera house, a position he held until being replaced by Stanisław Moniuszko. Quattrini conducted over one hundred operas, including many Polish premieres. His rich operatic output included above all Italian music, as well as the successful premiere of Moniuszko’s Halka, which he led on 1 January 1858. Quattrini also founded the Opera School at teatr Wielki, where he educated a number of notable alumni. Apart from that, he organised a number of charitable symphony concerts, among others in Sale Redutowe, where he conducted performances for the students of the University of Warsaw, as commemorated by the baton presented to Quattrini by the Warsaw students and currently held by the National Museum in Warsaw. In 1891, Quattrini finished his career as opera conductor, while continuing to serve as the musical director at the Piarist church in Warsaw.

Bibliography: Słownik biograficzny teatru polskiego 1765-1965, based on materials compiled by S. Dąbrowski, ed. Z. Raszewski et al., Warszawa 1973; L.T. Błaszczyk, Dyrygenci polscy i obcy w Polsce działający w XIX i XX wieku, PWM, Kraków 1964.

Rees, David

David Rees was the conductor of a Band of Hope in the Mynydd Bach district (Wales), from whom he received a baton on the occasion of his conducting debut with the choir on 28 March 1914. The baton is currently part of the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection (inventory number JSW 17). Band of Hope ensembles were affiliated with a Christian e charity of the same name, which propagated temperance among working class children and youth in Great Britain.

Rygier, Edmund

Edmund Rygier, stage name Nowicki (b. 15 August 1853 in Warsaw, d. 18 October 1922 in Toruń) was a Polish actor and director. He studied acting in Warsaw under Jan Chęciński, and then (following a five-year service in the Russian Army) at the E. Deryng School of Drama in Warsaw. As an actor, he chiefly performed in Warsaw and other stages in the partitioned Poland. He distinguished himself above all as the director of theatres in Poznań (Polski Theatre, 1896-1908), Cracow, Lublin, and Lwów (now Lviv, Ukraine). Since his youth, he was friends with the Polish pianist I.J. Paderewski. In 1901, on the occasion of Paderewski’s recital in Poznań, the pianist received a richly decorated baton and a laurel wreath made of gilded silver, both sponsored by Rygier, at the time the director of the Polski Theatre, and by other Poznań-based artists. Both items, including the baton with an engraved dedication, are currently part of the collection of the National Museum in Warsaw.

Bibliography: Słownik biograficzny teatru polskiego 1765-1965, based on materials by S. Dąbrowski, ed. Z. Raszewski et al., Warszawa 1973, pp. 616-617; Encyklopedia Teatru Polskiego, http://www.encyklopediateatru.pl/osoby/44727/edmund-rygier#, online access December 2017; J. Leszczyński, Z pamiętnika aktora, Czytelnik, Warszawa 1958, pp. 216-220; Paderewski [katalog wystawy], eds. J. Bojarska-Cieślik, M. Pinker, J. Popkowska, Muzeum Narodowe in Warszawie, Warszawa 2018, pp. 56, 242.

Sheddon, W.

W. Sheddon was a conductor (?), whose commemorative baton dated 1878 and presented to Sheddon by the Excelsior Flute Band (town unknown, possibly Great Britain) is currently part of the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection (inventory number JSW 3).

Sonnenfeld, Adolf Gustaw

Adolf Gustaw Sonnenfeld (19 September 1837, Wrocław – 28 May 1914, Warsaw) was a symphony orchestra conductor, violinist, and composer of operettas, vaudevilles, and ballets. Initially educated as a violinist in Wrocław (then Breslau), where he played in orchestras since turning 13, he then studied the violin and composition in Leipzig (since 1854). In 1857, he came to Warsaw with Emanuel Bach’s orchestra, and stayed in the Polish capital for the rest of his life, becoming one of the most popular and meritorious conductors. While in Warsaw, he played with the Legnica-based orchestra of Beniamin Bilse, and founded his own Warsaw Orchestra which achieved considerable success at Warsaw’s Dolina Szwajcarska. Sonnenfeld composed operas, operettas, ballet music, vaudeville scores and numerous popular pieces. In 1870 (or 1872, based on the anniversaries celebrated by Sonnenfeld and the inscription on the preserved baton), he was appointed conductor at Teatr Wielki in Warsaw, while also conducting a number of so-called “garden theatres,” for whom he composed. Sonnenfeld published his scores under his own name or using the pseudonym G. Adolfson. These included, among others, easy pieces, arrangements, and collections, such as Melodye z oper i inne ulubione, as well as numerous transcripts of compositions by Chopin and Moniuszko (the scores are available at the National Library and in the online Polona collection). Sonnenfeld was married to Ludwika Konopka, an actress. Sonnenfeld’s baton, presented to the conductor in 1892 by the Seydel family on the 20th anniversary of his conducting debut, is currently held by the Theatre Museum in Warsaw.

Bibliography: Słownik biograficzny teatru polskiego 1765-1965, based on materials compiled by S. Dąbrowski, ed. Z. Raszewski et al., Warszawa 1973; L.T. Błaszczyk, Dyrygenci polscy i obcy w Polsce działający w XIX i XX wieku, PWM, Kraków 1964; L.T. Błaszczyk, Żydzi w kulturze muzycznej ziem polskich w XIX i XX wieku: słownik biograficzny, Warszawa 2014; National Library catalogues.

Spurr, J.W.

J.W. Spurr was the conductor of the Birstall P.S.A. Band in Birstall (Great Britain). Spurr’s commemorative baton, dated 1894 and bearing a dedication from his band, is currently part of the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection (inventory number JSW 157).

Steel, Alfred

Alfred Steel was a conductor of a choir (possibly affiliated by a Methodist Church) in Rothwell, Great Britain (1886). Steel’s commemorative baton with a dedication from the choir and friends, is currently part of the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection. The baton is decorated with unique waterfowl motives  (inventory number JSW 127).

Strauss, Johann (syn)

Johann Strauss II (b. 25 October 1825 in Vienna, d. 3 June 1899 in Vienna) was one of the most famous composers of light music and the son of Johan Strauss I, composer and conductor. He composed approximately 500 pieces, mostly Viennese waltzes (including his most famous The Blue Danube, Vienna Blood, Tales from the Vienna Woods, etc.) and operettas (Die Fledermaus, Der Zigeunerbaron). Before he committed himself to composition, he had conducted his own orchestra (a merger of his own ensemble and that of his deceased father), with whom he had toured Europe and the United States. The Strauss family included a number of conductors, beginning with Johann Strauss I (1804-1849), through the aforementioned Johann Strauss II, his brothers Josef and Eduard, and Eduard’s son Johan Strauss III (1866-1939). A baton which, according to tradition, belonged to Johann Strauss (possibly Johann Strauss II), is currently part of the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection (inventory number JSW 118). The baton bears a mark after a missing inscription plate.

Bibliography: Encyklopedia muzyki, ed. A. Chodkowski, Warszawa 2001; M. Linhardt, “Strauss,” in: Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart, www.mgg-online.com [access December 2017].

Summers, Geo[rg]

Summers, Geo[rg?] was an English conductor, whose commemorative baton, which he received in 1902 from the members of the Bethesda [choir?], is  currently part of the K. Słowiński collection. The inscription on the baton does not explicitly mention the location (unless the ensemble was based in Bethesda, Wales).

Trombini, Cezar

Cezar (Cesare) Trombini (18 February 1835 or 1839, Padova – 15 August 1898, Venice) was an Italian opera and symphony orchestra conductor, virtuoso violinist, pedagogue and composer. Extraordinarily gifted as a child, he studied the violin and composition in Vienna. Despite his successes as a violinist, he devoted himself to conducting and in 1855 began touring Europe with Italian opera companies. Trombini’s stint in Poland started in 1873 when he visited Warsaw with Francesco Ciaffei’s opera and conducted his first premiere as the conductor of the Italian stage at Teatr Wielki. He also led a singing class at the Musical Institute in Warsaw. Appointed director of the Warsaw opera in 1875, from 1881 to 1889 he conducted in St. Petersburg, returning to Warsaw as professor of solo singing and director of the orchestra class at the Musical Institute. In 1891 he was reappointed first conductor of the Teatr Wielki opera, while also conducting the  Teatr Wielki orchestra in symphony concerts. He staged a number of opera and dramatic premieres, including the works of R. Wagner (among others Lohengrin in 1879). Known as a prodigious conducting and pedagogical talent, he conducted entire performances without the score and often performed as a violinist. He was married to the singer Emilia Trombinie nee Dąbrowska, with whom he had a daughter Margerita KAzuro-Trombini (1891-1979), pianist, harpsichordist and singer, juror of a number of Chopin Competitions. Trombini’s richly embroidered commemorative baton, presented to the conductor on 11 May 1895 by the members of the Teatr Wielki orchestra to celebrate the 50th anniversary of his artistic debut, is currently exhibited at the Theatre Museum.

Bibliography: L.T. Błaszczyk, Dyrygenci polscy i obcy w Polsce działający w XIX i XX wieku, PWM, Kraków 1964; Encyklopedia muzyki, ed. A. Chodkowski, 2nd revised edition, Warszawa 2001; Słownik biograficzny teatru polskiego 1765-1965, based on materials compiled by S. Dąbrowski, ed. Z. Raszewski et al., Warszawa 1973

Unger, Rose

Rose Unger was an English (American?) conductor, whose baton is currently part of the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection (inventory number JSW 154). The baton was presented in 1933 by an obscure orchestra initialed G.I., possibly on the occasion of a victory in a conductors’ competition.

Veit, Heinrich

Heinrich Veit was the conductor of Brünner Typographen Sängerbund (choral association of typographers, i.e. printers, possibly of German origin) in Brno, then Czechoslovakia (currently in the Czech Republic). Established in 1873, the band organized concerts, balls, and charity performances. Its motto read, “Gutenberg ist unser Hort, im Liede wie im Wort!”, which means, “Gutenberg is our treasure, in song and in word.” Veit’s commemorative baton with a dedication from the band and dat (4-6 June 1927) is currently part of the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection.

Bibliography: Brno, Typographen- Sängerbund (Pěvecký spolek typografů): http://spolky.profitux.cz/b/bm/tsb1873.html [online access december 2017];
“Musicologica Slovaca” 2014 no.2, http://uhv.sav.sk/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Musicologica2014_2.compressed-1.pdf [access December 2017].

Waddell, John Spence

John Spence Waddell was the conductor of the Willesden District Choir of London, with whom he won first prizes at choral competitions in London. His commemorative baton, without dedication but accompanied by commemorative medallions, is currently part of the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection (inventory number JSW 35). Three medallions certify the first prizes won with the Willesden District Choir in 1904, 1905 and 1907, respectively, while the fourth one comes from the Free Church Musicians Union festival dated 1911. According to press reports, Waddell conducted the aforementioned choir approximately from 1904 to 1914, winning a number of competitions.

Bibliography: “The Musical Times”, vol. 45: 1904 no.737, p. 470, JSTOR http://www.jstor.org/stable/903796; vol. 48: 1907 no.773, p. 474, JSTOR: http://www.jstor.org/stable/905015; vol. 49: 1908 no.785, p. 458, JSTOR: http://www.jstor.org/stable/905342; “Extra Supplement: The Competition Festival Record”, “The Musical Times”, vol. 53: 1912 no.827 [. 1, JSTOR: www.jstor.org/stable/906883; vol. 55: 1914 no.855, p. 1–4, JSTOR: www.jstor.org/stable/905928.

Walther, Major

Walther (von Walther, first name unknown) was an obscure commander (major) of a German battalion, and possibly a conductor of a military brass band. His decorative baton, according to the dedication presented to Walther on Christmas 1906., is currently part of the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection (inventory number JSW 145).

Wass F.B.

F. B. Wass was a conductor, winner of an unidentified festival; his baton, dated 1928, is currently an exhibit in the J.S. Witkiewicz Collection (inventory number JSW 79).

Young, David F.

David F. Young was an obscure conductor active in the late 19th century. The J.S. Witkiewicz Collection features a commemorative baton dated 1897 (inventory number JSW 85), dedicated to Young by the members of the Parish choir in Haggs (possibly the name of a Scottish village).